Put simply this means that both parents of a puppy have been tested for the disease and the result of each parent is normal. Normal meaning that both parents are free from the mutant gene responsible for the disease, and therefore, the puppies will not become afflicted by or carry the disease. However, puppy buyers should note that in order to legally claim a puppy is Normal by Parentage History (sometimes referred to as Clear by Parentage) several conditions must be in place and it is in the puppy buyers best interest to ensure that the documentation and paperwork are in place:
- Both parents must be normal and in the case of Fanconi Syndrome this must be by the ‘direct test’. Normal by the linkage marker test resulting in a probable result (‘probable normal/clear’) cannot be used in a ‘clear by parentage’ scenario. The word probable is indicative of the fact that the linkage marker test does not test for the precise mutant gene responsible for a condition. Linkage marker tests invariably give inaccurate results.
- Both parents must be DNA profiled (DNA fingerprint) – the DNA certificates should be available for buyers to review.
- The dog in question must be DNA profiled (DNA fingerprint)
- The dog in questions’ parentage must be proven by DNA. Research by the American Kennel Club found that (across all breeds) 10% of sires were not the sires of the dog in question noted on pedigree documentation; often a non-witnessed mating with another dog had taken place either before or after the desired mating was witnessed. In the case of Normal by Parentage History, the verification of parentage certificate should be available for puppy buyers to view.